North Carolin ">**« THE BULLETIN of the North Carol ina Department of Ag ricultu re L. Y . Ballentine, Commissioner N umber 122 April, 1951 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Tobacco Situation for 1951 4 Cooperating for Better Prices 8 North Carolina Tobacco Allotments, 1951 12 State Summary, 1950-51 14 North Carolina Tobacco Warehouse Sales Report for Season 1949-50 16 Summary of Dealer and Warehouse Resales, 1950-51 Season 18 North Carolina Tobacco Crops 1919-1950 19 North Carolina Tobacco Warehouses 20 Regulations Governing Weighing of Leaf Tobacco in Warehouses 27 Regulations Governing Tobacco Curer Installations 29 Outlets for U. S. Tobacco (Chart) Back Cover THE BULLETIN of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture L. Y. Ballentine, Commissioner Number 122 April, 1951 FOREWORD This, the second annual issue of the Tobacco Report, carries information compiled and prepared by W. P. Hedrick and J. H. Cyrus, tobacco specialists with the Division of Markets, in cooperation with U.S.D.A. under Research and Marketing Act. Credit for information contained herein is due the Cooperative Crop Reporting Service of the North Caro- lina and United States Departments of Agriculture; the USDA Tobacco Branch; and the Field Service Branch of the Production and Marketing Administra- tion. Tobacco accounts for 52 per cent of the agricultural income of the State and furnishes employment for 120,000 farm families in producing the crop and about 52,000 persons in processing and manufacturing. Commissioner of Agriculture free distribution by the Tobacco Branch, Markets Division, North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Raleieh. N. C. Tobacco Situation for 1951 By W. P. Hedrick Tobacco Marketing Specialist North Carolina Department of Agriculture The flue-cured grower has few worries except those over which he has considerable control. The hurley grower is faced with a large surplus in stocks and a diminishing market for some of the products in which hurley is used. These two types of tobacco are important sources of income to about one million farms in the Southern States. The cash value of these crops in 1949 was 778 million dollars. Domestic Situation — Flue-cured Almost every year the flue-cured tobacco crop makes some sort of a record. The season just ended made records with the highest average price ($55.05) per hundred pounds and also a record yield per acre (1,315) pounds. Nineteen hundred and forty-six was the year of the largest acreage (1,188,000), and also the largest production (1,352) million pounds. According to January 1st reports, stocks of flue-cured tobacco were at near record levels, 2,680 million pounds. However, do- mestic uses of flue-cured tobacco in manufactured products reach- ed an all-time high during 1950, due primarily to sharply in- creased cigarette consumption. Domestic manufacturers used 722 million pounds of the flue-cured crop during 1950. Cigarette consumption reached an all-time high of 392 billion in 1950, an increase of 1.8 per cent over the previous year. The per capita use of cigarettes reached a peak of 2,384 pieces, or seven pounds of tobacco for every man, woman and child in the United States. The step-up in defense activities at a time when employment and income were already high is responsible for the increase. Export Situation — Flue-cured Exports to foreign countries reached 446 million pounds of flue-cured in 1950, a figure which has been exceeded only once — in 1946, when heavy exports went to replenish depleted stocks in foreign countries. Improved conditions in foreign countries and the continued foreign aid program contributed to our increased exports. During the past two years the Economic Cooperation Administration, in its program to assist European recovery, has made funds available to several countries to enable them to purchase U. S. flue-cured tobacco. Western European countries took about 30 per cent of the flue-cured tobacco exported prior to World War II. The people of Western Europe regard cigarettes as an im- portant item in their standard of living, but per capita con- sumption is now very low due to economic conditions. Most European countries are not able to grow any sizeable quantity of tobacco due to unsuitable soil and climate. Our largest flue-cured customer, the United Kingdom, bought about 135 million pounds out of the 1950 crop, and has on hand stocks sufficient for about one year. Since the war a new and important customer has entered our flue-cured market— Western Germany. In the short space of five Flue-Cured tobacco exports totaled 446,000,000 pounds last year. These may increase in 1951. years Western Germany has become our second best customer of flue-cured. During 1950 about 45 million pounds were used by manufacturers in this area. Western Germans prefer blended American type cigarettes. To meet this preference their manu- facturers bartered for additional shipments of flue-cured leaf besides those received through ECA arrangements. Thus, the increased use of U. S. flue-cured tobacco in Western Germany since the end of the war has more than offset the losses in exports to Communist China. The one dark spot in the picture as far as manufacturers are concerned is the export of manufactured products. During 1949 approximately 25 billion cigarettes were exported. The Philip- pine Republic was our principal foreign customer after the war, but in 1950 this country placed import restrictions on manufac- tured products and reduced imports to about 5 billion cigarettes. The Domestic Outlook The domestic demand for cigarette tobacco is expected to be strong in 1951, in spite of an advance in cigarette prices. Whole- sale and retail prices were advanced in July, 1950. Manufacturers raised their prices 25 cents per thousand cigarettes, while re- tailers generally went up one cent per package. It is estimated that cigarettes will cost the American consumers about 125 million dollars more per year. These price raises should enable the manufacturers to pay the growers as much or more for cigarette tobacco in the 1951 crop. The high levels of employment and consumer incomes in prospect for 1951 are major factors favoring some increase in cigarette consumption. The quantities of flue-cured placed under government loan during the 1950 season were smaller than in previous years and relatively little remains in loan stock. The Flue-cured Tobacco Stabilization Corporation has on hand about 80 million pounds. This will probably be sold before the markets open in July. Export Outlook for Flue-cured Exports are expected to hold at present levels or possibly in- crease some from the 446 million pounds exported last year. Low stocks in the United Kingdom means the British should be back strong during the 1951 season. This will bolster the price of many grades of export type leaf that suffered during the 1950 season. Another bright spot in the export picture for 1951 is the fact that Japan, another of our' pre-war customers, may be back in the flue-cured market. The Japanese monopoly has indicated they may use some American flue-cured from the 1951 crop. Before the war, the Japanese bought a sizeable quantity of high quality cutter tobacco. The exports of cigarettes should show a sizeable increase due to shipments to the Armed Forces overseas. Burley Situation and Outlook Burley growers have improved their situation during the past year by reducing their planted acreage 10 per cent. The 1950 crop is estimated at 496 million pounds, about 60 million less than was produced in 1949. Yields per acre are expected to be slightly below average except in North Carolina and Virginia. The price support for the 1950 burley crop was above that of the previous season. Burley parity was 50.8 cents per pound, with a 90 per cent support price of 45.6 cents per pound. Sales indicate average prices of $49.00 per hundred pounds. The price would probably have been much better were it not for the fact that 143 million pounds remained unsold in the Burley stabiliza- tion pool. Burley growers are almost entirely dependent upon the domes- tic market for the use of their tobacco in cigarettes, smoking and chewing products. Burley has never entered the export trade as extensively as has flue-cured. During 1950 only 40 million pounds were sent abroad. The total uses of burley during 1950 were about 535 million pounds, or slightly more than was used in 1949. Cigarette consumption accounted for most of the in- crease. Burley is used extensively in smoking and chewing to- bacco and both of these products have been decreasing in popu- larity in the past few years. Therefore, growers should plant those varieties of burley that produce the highest percentage of thin, straw colored tobacco usable in cigarette manufacture. The outlook for the continued prosperity of the burley grower depends on the far-sighted manner in which the acreage control program is handled and on increased domestic consumption of tobacco products. Cooperating for Better Prices By J. H. Cyrus Tobacco Marketing Specialist North Carolina Department of Agriculture The working relationship between the U.S.D.A. Tobacco In- spection Service and the Flue-cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabili- zation Corporation has produced remarkable results in bringing about stabilized prices in the marketing of flue-cured tobacco, and has put many thousands of dollars into the tobacco farmer's pocket. Contrary to the thinking of some people, these two agen- cies are organized independently of each other, but they work hand in hand to make possible the price support loan program which guarantees the workers 90 per cent of parity. Tobacco Inspection or Grading Service is a Federal Organi- zation, operating under the Production and Marketing Admin- istration of the U. S. Department of Agriculture with a Tobacco Branch office located in Raleigh. The Flue-cured Tobacco Co- operative Stabilization Corporation is a Farmer Organization, operating under North Carolina's cooperative laws, and controlled by the common stockholders who are growers in the flue-cured tobacco areas. The members of this organization established their headquarters in Raleigh. The inspection of flue-cured tobacco according to standard grades was inaugurated in 1929 by the U. S. Department of Agriculture as an aid to growers in marketing their crops. In the beginning a small fee was charged for the inspection service, but the Tobacco Inspection Act of 1935 made it possible to put it at the disposal of the growers without charge when approved by a two-thirds majority in a referendum. Through the provisions of this Act, the U. S. Department of Agriculture, cooperating with the N. C. Department of Agricul- ture and other agencies, has made tobacco inspection service and tobacco price reports available to growers on all designated markets. The purpose of tobacco grading and the market news service is to provide a measuring stick for quality and price in order that the growers may protect themselves against loss in the sales of their tobacco. While the inspection and grading service has been in operation for 21 years, the Flue-cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization Corporation is relatively new. It was organized on June 1, 1946, by farm leaders in flue-cured areas in cooperation with officials of the Tobacco Branch of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Plans were made to start operating at the beginning of the 1947 marketing season; but early in the 1946 season falling prices in lower grades caused about 11 per cent of the tobacco to sell below the 90 per cent of parity price. So, to protect growers against undue losses, the Flue-cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabili- zation Corporation went into operation on August 12, 1946, and it was through this organization that the Commodity Credit Corporation price support loan program was made available to growers. The Stabilization corporation is needed to perform several func- tions which cannot be handled by the Commodity Credit Corpora- tion as they are in the case of some other commodities. First of all, the C.C.C. can make loans only on commodities which are in a "unit volume," or collateral position. A hogshead is considered a unit volume of tobacco; but in preparing tobacco for market each individual farmer has to separate his crop into a number of Tobacco received under loan is stored by commercial facilities on a con- tract basis, and is sold by the Flue-Cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization Corporation. small lots to meet the buyers' demand. These separations are made according to groups, qualities and colors, and the average farmer has only a small volume of each different grade. Thus, in order to make individual lots of tobacco eligible for C.C.C. loans, the Stabilization corporation assumes responsibility for assem- bling the tobacco into unit volumes of hogsheads according to groups, qualities and colors to bring it into a collateral position. A schedule of loan values for U. S. standard grades is estab- lished each year. This is done in a joint meeting of the U. S. Tobacco Branch, which represents C.C.C, and the Flue-cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization Corporation with representa- tives present from the Farm Bureau, the Grange, the Bright Belt Warehouse Association, Tobacco Leaf Dealer Exporters As- sociation, and all the state P.M.A. offices in the flue-cured area. Last year Tobacco Associates, Inc., was also represented. The loan value on each standard grade of tobacco is based on 90 per cent of parity as of June 15 prior to the opening of the marketing season, with attention given to quality, use and previous averages of the individual grades. Thus, through cooperation and agree- ment among all parties represented, the official schedule of loan values by U. S. standard grades is established. When the auction bids are not above the established loan level, the growers may take advantage of the support price through a non-recourse loan. In this procedure the warehouseman advances the grower the amount .of the loan, and is reimbursed by the Flue-cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization Corporation with funds borrowed through contractual arrangement from the Com- modity Credit Corporation. In all cases, only the original growers who have not over-planted their acreage allotments are eligible for loans. Tobacco received under loan is dried, packed in hogsheads and stored in commercial facilities on a contract basis. It is later sold by the Flue-cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization Corporation after all growers have completed marketing the current crop. When all the tobacco taken by Stabilization in any one marketing year is sold, the receipts in excess of loans and cost of operations are pro-rated on a dollar value basis to growers who placed their tobacco under loan. Tobacco received from the 1946 crop by Stabilization was sold at a net gain of $67,916.08. The Board of Directors resolved to set this aside as a reserve for loss. The 1947 crop was sold at a net 10 gain of $4,195,416.15 and this, less a small reserve fund, has been distributed to growers who participated in the 1947 crop opera- tions. The following table shows the amount and percentages of pro- ducers' tobacco received by the Stabilization corporation from each belt during the 1950 marketing season. Percentage Producers" Sales Stabilization Stabilization Belt Type (Lbs.) Receipts (Lbs.) Received nl . R „ 1t HA 289,601.482 35.584.844 12.28 2rAM. Lit 11B 157.641,536 12.357.976 7.84 Km . ■::.■ f «5:o56.236 .7,888.592 G %lfl ' 1,250,701,568 77,637,772 6.20 Total The success of the flue-cured tobacco program, which is unique among the farm programs of the nation, can be very closely con- nected with the working relations and services rendered by the U.S.D.A. Tobacco Inspection Service and the Flue-Cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization Corporation in cooperation with other State and Federal agencies. Through the combined efforts of all these agencies, the flue-cured tobacco program has been developed into one of the few self-supporting farm programs in the nation. 11 North Carolina Tobacco Allotments — 1951 1 Flue-Cured County No. Farms! Acres 1 Alamance i, 320 7,094.8 Alexander ^ 67 ■ 2.155.8 AnBon _ 211 523.0 Beaufort 2.644 14.175.2 2f r ' le 1.723 8.441.7 5 laden . 3.473 10.940.1 Brunswick i, 762 4.780.0 Burke • 1 3 Caswell 247 696!il Camden 2 57 Carteret ..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 439 I,989.*9 C aaw ell 1.926 13,726.3 Catawba 5 g j Chatham \\ 1,177 4,545^ Chowan 186 801.6 Cleveland i 22 Columbus ! i 5,497 24,066.'9 Craven 1,886 12,693.2 Cumberland 2,467 7.683.8 Currituck 1 59 Davidson 1,694 5,139!l Davie 907 2,059.2 Duplin 4,845 22,745.2 Durham . 1,063 5,866.6 Edgecombe 1,693 17,171.1 Forsyth 2,211 ' 7,788.6 Franklin 2,849 17,013.4 Gaston - 4 7.4 Gates 115 3 96 .'7 Granville 2,113 19,834.5 Greene 1,147 , 17,924.1 Guilford 3,167 13,925.1 Halifax 2,140 8,695.4 Harnett 3,837 21,329.9 Hertford 1,052 4,818.3 H°ke 994 4.127.0 Hyde 8 9.4 Iredell 805 1.915.6 Johnston 5,924 33,681.7 Jones 940 8.095.3 Lee 1,348 6.087.9 Lenoir 1,911 20.769.9 Mart'" 1,648 12,678.3 Mecklenburg 11 5g Montgomery 401 1.356!7 Moore 1,535 6.714.0 Nash 3,011 27.136.2 New Hanover 86 252 7 Northampton 180 608.6 Onslow 1,876 9.284.7 Orange 929 5.006.8 Pamlico 448 1 .697.0 Pasquotank 1 17 Pender 1,596 4.68L0 Person 1,743 1 4.294.4 Pitt 2,674 37,762.6 Randolph 1,581 5.003.9 Richmond 961 2,928.4 Robeson 4,904 30,440.7 Rockingham 3,026 19.527.2 Rowan 33 80.4 Sampson 5,767 22.561.9 Scotland 474 1,629 1 Stokes 2,749 17.121.1 Surry 3,166 16.288.7 Tyrrell 1 .8 Vance 1,637 12.129.1 Wake 3,940 28,911.1 Warren 1,944 9.105.8 Washington 286 1 ,422.0 Wayne 2,984 21,673.7 Wilkes 937 2,264.2 Wilson 2,178 26,067.3 V»dkin 2,669 12.079.3 Totals 121.907 703.249.5 12 Burley County No - Farn,8l! Acres 2 1 °- 9 Alamance * - Alexander ' Allegany »3 22- Ashe l.« 66 l * ' 185 111.7 Avery ' 2 812 2,076.9 Buncombe "• „ _ Burke 12 B Caldwell 26 ' Cherokee 33 Clay ... 14 * 18 Cleveland ° 65 David8on i 0.9 Durham . o Gaston 58g 327'.0 Graham .„„ n „ . 1,880 1,429.9 Haywo0d 79 46.3 Henderson g Irede11 214 104-0 Jackson .... 2g0 McDowell 147 48.3 Macon 3 114 3,689.0 Madison ■ ul Mecklenburg ggo M7 2 Mitchell 1 Polk • 2 .' . 1 0.5 Randolph 287 RutherfOTd ■ 1M 40.8 2™"" ,-■■•. 58 41.1 Transylvania ■■■.■• 9506 Watauga ^ 4 ? * nkes :::' ^ m»m Yancey , ' 16 206 12,565.2 Totals .lo.iuo i Source: U. S. Production and Marketing Administration. = Does not include new growers for 1951. ,.,n«„„.i ;„ 3 At the time this Bulletin went to press a 5 per cent additional m acretge had b"en announced but had not been allocated to the connt.es. 13 State Summary— 1950-51 A strong demand and a good quality 1950 crop of flue-cured tobacco resulted in the largest amount of money ever paid North Carolina growers for their golden leaf. The 44 flue-cured markets operating in North Carolina sold 836,400,256 pounds of producers' tobacco for $469,075,161, giving the growers a record high average of $56.08 per hundred pounds. This was $7.20 above the previous year's average of $48.88 per hundred for 720,205,501 pounds of producers' tobacco. The North Carolina Border Belt (Type 13) opened the 1950 season on August 1 and operated for 53 days. Sales were light for the first two weeks due to a late maturing crop which kept growers too busy harvesting and curing to prepare tobacco for market; but by the third week the volume of offerings was about normal. Producers' sales on the eight Border Belt markets in North Carolina totaled 140,794,849 pounds, and averaged $56.99 per hundred pounds, the highest average price on record for that type. In 1949 the Border Belt sold 132,676.010 pounds for growers at an average price of $49.88 per hundred pounds. Final sales for the season were held at Fairmont on October 19. Type 12, Eastern Belt markets began their 1950 season on August 21 after being delayed one selling day due to continued heavy sales on the Georgia-Florida markets. Averages in this belt reached their season peak during the first two weeks of auctions. After that prices eased lower as the season progressed. Seventeen markets in this belt sold 405,056,236 pounds of tobacco for grow- ers at an average price of $56.89 per hundred pounds. Compara- tive figures for the preceding year show that producers sold 363,414,192 pounds for an average of $49.28 per hundred. The season of 61 selling days ended on November 17 with final sales at Rocky Mount and Wilson. The five Sandhill markets of the Middle Belt (Type 11B) opened on August 28 with all companies represented, except on the Ellerbe market, where only one major company was repre- sented. The remaining five markets in the Middle Belt opened on August 31. Growers received $89,114,600 for 157,641,536 pounds of tobacco sold during the season, averaging $56.53 per hundred pounds. During the 1949 season producers averaged $48.46 per hundred for 122,517,721 pounds sold. The season which ended 14 on November 21, lasted 57 days, but above 90 per cent of the crop had passed into the hands of buyers after 40 days of activity. Old Belt markets (Type 11A) opened September 14 for the 1950 season with some dissatisfaction among growers over prices received; however, this condition soon adjusted itself and sales on most markets were blocked during the remainder of the first month. The general market average followed a downward trend throughout the season as production figures for Type 11 steadily rose from the estimate of 292 million pounds to 330 million pounds by the end of the season. The nine North Carolina Old Belt markets sold 132,907,635 pounds of tobacco for growers, paying them $69,260,254, or an average of $52.11 per hundred pounds thus, topping the 1949 average of $46.12 by $5.99. Producers sold only 101,597,578 pounds in 1949 for $46,855,950. The regular sales, which ran for 63 days, ended on December 15. However, Winston-Salem held a clean-up sale on December 20. A marketing holiday of four scheduled selling days was held September 21, 22, 25, and 26. This holiday was proclaimed because of congested conditions in redrying plants. When the markets re-opened after the holiday several adjustments in daily sales hours were made from time to time to prevent the congestion from recurring in plants. Sales of Burley, Type 31, began November 29, 1950, on North Carolina markets at Asheville, Boone and West Jefferson. The opening was delayed one day because of inclement weather. Vol- ume offered on opening day filled the warehouses, but deliveries were slower thereafter due to unsuitable conditions for preparing tobacco for market. Producers sold 12,551,631 pounds of Burley tobacco on North Carolina markets for $6,449,170, averaging $51 38 per hundred pounds, which is slightly higher than average prices made in other Burley Belts. In the 1949-50 season the three North Carolina markets sold 13,650,674 pounds for growers at an average of $43.37 per hundred pounds. Sales were completed for the season at Boone and West Jefferson on January 19, and at Asheville on January 26, thus, concluding the 1950-51 tobacco marketing season in North Carolina, 15 £ 5 c c '5 c 1 2 C 1 | 1 <5afcoiiZ(SKoihS^S^ M S v i 2 ::::::: | < sa fe Summary of Dealer and Warehouse Resales — 1950-1951 Season RESALES POUNDS DOLLARS Dealer Warehouse Total Dealer Warehouse Total N. C. Border Belt Type 13 6.492,082 8,846.998 15.339,030 $2,994,071 $4,772.67-1 N. C. Eastern Belt Type 12 13.815.430 29.375,369 43.190,799 6,660.983 16.097.945 N. C. Middle Belt Type 11B 7,403,757 12.867,549 2,639.537 3.997.612 6.637.149 N. C. Old Belt Type 11 A 7.989,683 13.805,603 2.787.869 4.051.095 N. C. Burley Belt Type 31 1,440,626 3,248.802 905,343 724.815 S. C. Type 13 8.147,692 16,487,432 4.013,272 4.341.608 8,354.880 Georgia Type 11 6,737.638 14,906,394 3,825.927 3.217,649 Florida Type 14 1.704.686 Virginia Type 11A 11,235,443 Total Sales in Flue-Cured Area 1950-51 Stat. Producers* Sales Gross Sales Pounds Ave. Price Pounds Ave. Price N. C Va S. C Ga 836,400.266 156,693,847 129.767.485 $56.08 65.17 54.88 47.89 61.82 56.06 921,603.237 167.929.290 146.244.917 128.983,223 16,477.663 $56.66 54.83 54.41 Fla Total . 1,260,701.668 1,380,238.230 54.64 18 North Carolina Tobacco Crops 1919-1950' Year No. Acres Yield Per Acre (Pounds) Production (1000 lbs.) Value (1000 Dollars) Average Price FLUE-CURED 1919 521.500 612 319,276 $157,340 $49.30 1920 621.900 681 423,703 88.271 20.80 1921 414.900 594 246.540 60.402 24.60 1922 444.000 611 271.170 74,572 27.60 1923 544.300 728 396.354 81,998 20.70 1924 473,500 585 276,819 62,597 22.60 1925 536.200 696 373,352 83,756 22.40 1926 546,700 092 378,274 96.762 25.60 1927 639,600 755 482,982 100,414 20.80 1928 712,400 692 493,132 93,450 19.00 1929 729,300 665 484,630 89,470 18.60 1930 768,000 757 681,200 74,733 12.90 1931 688,500 692 476,382 42,024 8.80 1932 462,600 624 288,750 34,949 12.10 1933 667,800 794 530,133 85,530 16.10 1934 486,500 847 412,055 117,999 28.60 1935 612.500 935 572.625 116,418 20.30 1936 591.000 765 451,975 101,856 22.50 1937 675.000 883 595,815 143,058 24.00 1938 603,500 844 509.470 115,428 22,70 1939 843,000 964 812,540 123.893 15.20 1940 498.000 1,038 516,835 85,792 16.60 1941 488,000 928 452,825 132,291 29.20 1942 539,000 1,062 566,810 221.538 39.10 1943 680,000 935 542,200 219,074 40.40 1944 684,000 1,077 736,990 317.628 43.10 1946 722,000 1,100 794,310 349,148 44.00 1946 802,000 1,138 912,970 451,639 49.50 1947 783,000 1,139 892,206 374,513 42.00 1948 594,000 1,239 739,380 368,040 49.80 1949 621,000 1,178 731,530 352,685 48.20 1960 636,000 1,348 BUKLEY 857,150 LIGHT AIR-CURED 473, 000** 55.50*' 1934 5,500 870 4,785 $ 809 17.50 1936 5,200 926 4.810 1.025 21.30 1936 6,000 900 5.400 2,095 38.80 1937 9,000 975 8,776 1,878 21.40 1938 8,600 900 7,740 1.308 16.90 1939 8,100 1,070 8,667 1,447 16.70 1940 6,600 1,050 6,825 1,242 18.20 1941 6,200 1,075 6,665 2,093 31.40 1942 6,600 1,160 7,590 3,211 42.30 1943 8.500 1,225 10,412 5.102 49.00 1944 12,000 1.390 16,680 8,157 48.90 1945 13,000 1,500 19,500 7,468 38.30 1946 9,800 1,475 14,456 5,999 41.50 1947 9,600 1.560 14,976 6,335 42.30 1948 10,300 1,680 17.304 8.012 46.30 1949 10,800 1,440 16,652 6.760 43.40 I960** 10,000 1,600 16,000 8.200** 51.00< •Source: N. C. and U.S.D.A. Crop Reporting Service. • Estimate of Division of Markets based on Producers Sales. 19 North Carolina Tobacco Warehouses, Floor Space and Operators by Belts and Markets — 1950 N. C. BORDER BELT '**■ Chadourn (One set buyers) 175,000 sq. ft. floor space Carters No. 1 & 2— A. A. Tilley, W. F. Rogers Meyers— J. H. Harper, J. D. Hendley New Brick— W. C. Coates & Son Clarkton (one set buyers) 231,500 sq. ft. floor space Banners — B. F. Rivenbark, J. H. Bryant Bright Leaf— B. F. Rivenbark, J. H. Bryant Brick— O. L. Littleton •"■ Big L — O. L. Littleton Big 5— H. M. Clark, M. L. Fisher, E. L. Dudley New Bladen— H. M. Clark, M. L. Fisher, E. L. Dudley Fair Bluff (one set buyers) 125,000 sq. ft. floor space Powell & Dixie— A. H., A. H. Jr., B. A. Powell, A. L. Carver Planters No. 1 & 2— N. N. Love, W. M. Talley, Carl Mears Fairmont (four sets buyers) 1,206,000 sq. ft. floor space Big 5— E. J. Chambers, A. 0. Reeves, A. E. Garrett, M. C. Yarboro Robeson County— E. J. Chambers, A. O. Reeves, A. E. Garrett, M. C. Yarboro Peoples— E. J. Chambers, A. O. Reeves, A. E. Garrett, M. C. Yarboro Davis— F. A. Davis, Harry and Jack Mitchell Davis-Mitchell — F. A. Davis, Harry and Jack Mitchell Big Brick— F. P. Joyce, J. A. Pell Farmers — F. P. Joyce, J. A. Pell Dixie— E. H. Frye, J. W. and J. M. Holliday Frye No. 1 and 2— E. H. Frye. J. W. and J. M. Holliday Holliday— E. H. Frye, J. W. and J. M. Holliday Planters No. 1 and 2— N. Tuck, Alley and W. L. Best, M. Daniel, G. R. Royster Square Deal No. 1 and 2 — W. G. Bassett Star-Carolina No. 1 and 2— Dick Booker, C. A. Blankenship, Bill Sheets. A. A. Fowler Twin State— P. R. Floyd, Jr., R. J. Harris, Paul Wilson Fayetteville (one set buyers) 340,000 sq. ft. floor space Big Farmers— R. H. Barbour, S. T. Proctor, P. Campbell Wellons — Joe W. Stephenson, J. C. Adams Lumberton (three sets buyers) 581,000 sq. ft. floor space Britts— J. R. Musgrave, W. and C. Chaffin, J. S. Walden, Jr. Carolina No. 1 and 2— M. A. Roycroft, J. E. Johnson, J. L. Townsend Dixie— N. A. McKeithan, Jr., J. A. Kinlaw, Joe Sharp, E. K. Biggs Hedgepeth No. 2— R. A. Hedgepeth, J. K. Roycroft, H. H. Hicks, R. L. Rollins Liberty— R. E. Wilkens, F. S. White, R. H, Liveomore, Jr. . Smiths No. 1 and 2— T. J. Smith, Paul Sands, H. P. Allen 20 Tabor City (one set buyers) 194,000 sq. ft. floor space Carolina-Farmers— R. C, R. C, Jr.. and Joe Coleman, Mrs. Harriet Sikes Garrells— G. R. and C. E. Walden Planters — Don Watson, Mgr. Whiteville (three sets buyers) 580,000 sq. ft. floor space Brooks — L. H. and Blair Motley Motley— L. H. and Blair Motley Crutchfield— Gaither and Raymond Crutchfield Lea's No. 1 — Wm. Townes Lea Moores — A. H. Moore Nelson's — John H. Nelson Perkins-Newman— H. L. and J. W. Perkins, N. C. Newman Planters No. 1 and 2— A. O. King, Jr., J. W. Peay Tuggles— A. Dial Gray, J. L. Neal Farmers — A. Dial Gray, J. L. Neal EASTERN BELT Ahoskie (one set buyers) 113,000 sq. ft. floor space Basnight No. 1 and 2 — Lyman Wilkens, H. Veacey Farmers No. 1 and 2— W. D. Odom, E. R. Evans Clinton (one set buyers) 373,000 sq. ft. floor space Bass Whse.— Taft Bass Big Sampson— Z. D. WcWhorter, Ennis Bass, G. S. Strickland Carolina— Z. D. McWhorter, Ennis Bass, G. S. Strickland Center Brick — Guy R. Ross Ross No. 2— Guy R. Ross Farmers— H. and Joe Carter, A. F. Lockamy, C. Wiggans, John Chestnut Dunn (one set buyers) 351,000 sq. ft. floor space Big 4 Whse.— Buck and Hank Currin, Jack Calhoun, Tom Smothers Farmers — D. W. Worthington, J. R. Owens Growers — D. W. Worthington, J. R. Owens Farmville (two sets buyers) 408,000 sq. ft. floor space Bell's— L. R. Bell and Sons, C. C. Ivey and Bros. Farmers — Grover Webb, John Fountain Fountain's — Grover Webb, John Fountain Monks No. 1 and 2— J. Y. Monk, R. D. Rouse, J. C. Carlton Planters— M. J. Moye. C. C. Harris, Chester Worthington Goldsboro (one set buyers) 244,000 sq. ft. floor space Carolina— S. G. Best, Bruce Smith, J. I. Musgrave Farmers No. 1 and 2— S. B. Hill, Carl Holloman, M. W. Rouse, Harold Benton Tin — Jim Hopewell, Paul Bridgers, R. Smith, J. B. Scott Victory— Jim Hopewell, Paul Bridgers, R. Smith, J. B. Scott Greenville (five sets buyers) 1,478,000 sq. ft. floor space Cannon — W. T. Cannon, Carlton Dail 21 Center Brick — M. D. Lassiter Dixie — M. D. Lassiter Farmers — J. A. Tripp and Sons Growers — Woodrow Worthington Harris Rogers — R. E. Rogers Keel's Coop. — J. T. Keel, Mgr. McGowans — C. H. McGowan Mortons — W. Z. Morton Empire — M. Z. Morton New Carolina No. 1 and 2— Floyd McGowan, L. W. Edwards Star No. 1 and 2— B. B. Suggs. G. V. Smith Gold Leaf— B. B. Suggs. G. V. Smith Victory — Guy and H. Forbes, O. L. Joyner, Jr. Kinston (four sets buyers) 1,336,000 sq. ft. floor space Brooks— J. R., J. R., Jr., and Fred Brooks Central — J. E. Jones, C. W. Wooten Eagle — Percy Holden, Mgr. New Carolina — Percy Holden, Mgr. Farmers — J. T. Jenkins, L. E. Pollock Kinston Coop. — G. F. Loftin, Pres. Knott Whse., Inc.— K. W. Loftin, Mgr. Knotts New— H. G. Knott, W. E. Brewer New Dixie — W. M. Wickham Planters — L. O. Stokes, Mgr. Sheppards No. 1 and 2 — R. E. Sheppard Tapps— H. F. Laws The Star Whse.— C. J. Herring Robersonville (one set buyers) 190,000 sq. ft. floor space Adkins and Bailey — J. H. Gray and Mayo Little, Mgrs. New Red Front — J. H. Gray and Mayo Little, Mgrs. Planters Whse.— H. T. Highsmith, E. G. Anderson Rocky Mount (four sets buyers) 965,000 sq. ft. floor space Cobb and Foxhall No. 1 and 2 — W. E. Cobb, H. P. Foxhall Mangum No. 1 — Roy M. Phelps Planters No. 1, 2 and 3— Bernard Faulkner Smith No. 1 and 2 — James D. Smith Works Whse.— R. J. Works and Son Easley Whse. Co., Inc.— H. A. Easley, Mgr. Fenners No. 1 and 2 — J. B. Fenner Farmers — T. A. Williams Smithfield (two sets buyers) 585,000 sq. ft. floor space Big Planters, Inc.— W. A. Carter, Mgr. Farmers— N. L. Daughtery, G. G. Adams, W. L. Kennedy Gold Leaf — R. A. Pearce Dixie Growers — R. A. Pearce Little Dixie — Jack Broadhurst Perkins Riverside — N. L. Perkins Wallace No. 1, 2 and 3— Lawrance, Dixon, Holton Wallace 22 Tarboro (one set buyers) 135,000 sq. ft. floor space Clarks No. 1 and 2— H. I. Johnson, S. A. McConkey Farmers No. 1 and 2— W. L. House, J. P. Bunn, W. A. Gardner Victory No. 1 and 2— W. E. Simmons, C. Weeks, J. and W. L. Leggett Wallace (one set buyers) 320,000 sq. ft. floor space Blanchard and Farrior— O. C. Blanchard, W. H. Farrior Hussey No. 1 and 3— J. H. Bryant, G. Bennett, W. L. Hussey Washington (one set buyers) 203,000 sq. ft. floor space Gravely's — H. C. Gravely and Sons Knotts— L. E. Knott Sermons No. 1 and 2— W. J. Sermons, J. E. Roberson Wendell (two sets buyers) 232,000 sq. ft. floor space Banners No. 1 and 2— F. Harris, J. W. Dale, Jr., I. B. Medlin Farmers — L. R. Clark and Son Northside— G. Dean, E. H. Price Planters — J. I. Lynch Producers Coop. — Ronald Hocutt, Mgr. Star A and B— J. S. Benard, C. Walker Wilson (five sets buyers) 1,532,000 sq. ft. floor space Banner — A. W. Fleming and Sons Big Dixie— E. B. Hicks, R. P. Dew, W. C. Thompson Big Star — J. J. Gibbons Carolina— G. L. Wainwright Wainwright— G. L. Wainwright Center Brick No. 1, 2 and 3— Cozart and Eagles Company W. B. Clark and Sons Farmers — S. Grady Dean Growers Coop.— S. E. Griffin, Mgr. New Planter— R. T. Smith, B. W. Can- Smith Whse., Inc., A, B and C— H. H. Harris, Jr., Mgr. Watson No. 1, 2 and 3— H. W. and S. W. Anderson Williamston (one set buyers) 180,000 sq. ft. floor space New Carolina— S. C. Griffin, H. L. Barnhill, J. B. Taylor, E. Lilley New Farmers— S. C. Griffin, H. L. Barnhill, J. B. Taylor, E. Lilley Planters— C. U. and J. R. Rogers, J. W. Gurkin, C. Langley Roanoke-Dixie— C. U. and J. R. Rogers, J. W. Gurkin, C. Langley Windsor (did not have full set buyers) 45,000 sq. ft. floor space Farmers No. 1 and 2— S. F. and J. F. Hick MIDDLE BELT Aberdeen (one set buyers) 78,000 sq. ft. floor space Aberdeen— R. W. Haney New Aberdeen— R. W. Haney Planters— Gene Maynard, Bill Maurer, Chester Luxon 23 Carthage (one set buyers) 345,000 sq. ft. floor space McConnells — W. M. Carter Smothers No. 1 and 2— H. P. and R. D. Smothers Durham (three sets buyers) 521,000 sq. ft. floor space Liberty — Walker and Johnstone, Clyde Roberts Mangum— S. T. and S. C. Mangum, I. E. Satterfield Planters— J. M. Talley Roycroft— H. T., M. A. and J. K. Roycroft, J. C. Currin Star— C. H. and W. W. Cozart, W. L. Currin, A. L. Carver Star Brick— C. H. and W. W. Cozart. W. L. Currin, A. L. Carver Ellerbe (did not have full set buyers) 65,000 sq. ft. floor space Farmers — Bill Simpson, Geo. Mabe Richmond County— H. G. Perry, Joe Wallace, Joe Bryant, H. A. Fagg Fuquay-Varlna (two sets buyers) 398,000 sq. ft. floor space Centeral No. 1 and 2— S. T. Proctor, P. L. Campbell, R. H. Barbour New Deal — King Roberts, E. E. Clayton Planters— W. M., R. B., A. L. Talley Talley Bros.— W. M., R. B., A. L. Talley Southside — J. C. Adams, J. W. Stephenson Varina-Brick — J. C. Adams, J. W. Stephenson Henderson (two sets buyers) 394,000 sq. ft. floor space Banners— C. J. Fleming, C. B. Turner, E. C. Huff, L. B. Wilkinson Carolina— W. B. Daniel, F. S. Royster, A. H. Moore Coopers— W. B. Daniel, F. S. Royster, A. H. Moore Farmers — W. J. Alston Planters— W. J. Alston High Price— C. J. Fleming, C. B. Turner, E. C. Hugg, L. B. Wilkinson Liberty — Geo. T. Robertson Louisburg (one set buyers) 74,000 sq. ft. floor space Planters— A. N. Wilson, S. T. and Bryant Cottrell Southside — Charlie Ford Union — G. C. Harris, N. F. Freeman Oxford (two sets buyers) 351,000 sq. ft. floor space Banner — W. L. Mitchell Mitchell— W. L. Mitchell Farmers— S. T. Currin, B. T. Williams, Julian Adcock Mangum— S. T. Currin, B. T. Williams, Julian Adcock Fleming No. 1 and 2— G. B. Watkins, D. T. Currin, H. G. Taylor Planters— C. R., J. R., and S. J. Watkins Johnson— C. R., J. R., and S. J. Watkins Owen No. 1 and 2— J. S. Watkins, L. Gregory Sanford (one set buyers) 156,000 sq. ft. floor space Big Sanford— Joe M. Wilkens, G. T. Hancock Wilkens — Joe M. Wilkens, G. T. Hancock Farmer Flag— C. W. Puckett, F. L. McCollum Wood 3 W No. 1 and 2— W. F.Wood 24 Warrenton (one set buyers) 97,000 sq. ft. floor space Boyd's— W. P. Burwell Center— R. K. Carroll Currin's— D. G. Currin Farmers — E. G. Tarwater OLD BELT Burlington (one set buyers) 96,000 sq. ft. floor space Carolina— R. D. Tickle, H. L. Perkins, J. G. McCray Coble— N. C. Newman, Elton Hughes, H. L. Johnson Farmers— O. H. King, C. R. McCauley, R. W. Rainery Greensboro (did not have full set buyers) 158,000 sq. ft. floor space Greensboro Tob. Whse. Co.— R. C. Coleman, Mgr. Guilford County Tob. Whse, Co.— J. R. Pell, Mgr. Madison (one set buyers) 124,000 sq. ft. floor space Big Star— R. A. Cardwell, R. T. Chilton, S. F. Webster - New Brick— R. A. Cardwell, R. T. Chilton, S. F. Webster Carolina — T. D. Preston, R. G. Angell Planters— J. R. Price, W. S. Smith, H. A. Fagg Sharpe and Smith— J. R. Price, W. S. Smith, H. A. Fagg Mebane (one set buyers) 105,000 sq. ft. floor space Farmers — J. T. Hensley and Sons Piedmont— J. F. McCauley, I. C. Farabow, J. D. Wood Planters— W. J. Dillard, J. B. Keck, J. H. Warren Mt. Airy (one set buyers) 158,000 sq. ft. floor space Liberty— R. F. and Fox Nichols, W. H. Brown Nichols— R. F. and Fox Nichols, W. H. Brown Planters and Jones— Tom and Frank Jones, Buck White Va.-Carolina — R. C. Simmons, Sr. Simmons — R. C. Simmons, Sr. Reidsville (one set buyers) 225,000 sq. ft. floor space Browns— G. E. Smith, P. D. McMichael, R. Roberts, D. Huffines Farmers— G. E. Smith, P. D. McMichael, R. Roberts, D. Huffines Leader— A. P. Sands, A. G. Irvin, J. L. Pinnix Watts— A. P. Sands, A. G. Irvin, J. L. Pinnix Smothers— T. B. Smothers Roxboro (one set buyers) 147,000 sq. ft. floor space Farmers — Lindsay Wagstaff, R. L. Hester Hyco— W. R. Jones, R. W. Lunsford, Geo. Walker, F. J. Hester Pioneer— H. W. Winstead, Jr., J. H. Merritt, D. L. Whitfield Planters No. 1 and 2— T. O. Pass Winstead— T. T. and Elmo Mitchell Stoneville (one set buyers) 84,000 sq. ft. floor space Browns — O. P. Joyce, Roy Carter Farmers — F. A. Brown, P. M. Moorefield 25 Piedmont — J. J. Webster, G. D. Rakestraw Slate Bros.— J. O., B. R., B.M., and C. A. Slate Winston-Salem (four sets buyers) 650,000 sq. ft. floor space Brown — R. W. Newsome, W. B. Simpson Carolina — H. M. Bouldin, G. H. Robertson Dixie— Floyd Joyce, W. G. Sheets, J. R. Pell Farmers — Floyd Joyce, W. G. Sheets, J. R. Pell Glenn and Banner— S. H. Price, C. T. Glenn, D. L. Harris, C. H. Dalton Liberty— R. T. and R. F. Carter, M. M. Joyner Peper No. 1 and 2 — F. D. Peper Piedmont— B. E. Cock, C. B. Strickland Planters— Foss Smithdeal, Joe Sharp, W. A. Harkey, Clint Smithdeal Taylor— Paul Taylor, J. H. Dyer N. C. BURLEY BELT Asheville (one set buyers) 425,000 sq. ft. floor space Carolina — Farmers Federation, Max Roberts, Mgr. Farmers — Farmers Federation, Max Roberts, Mgr. Dixie No. 1 and 2 — Taft Bass Planters No. 1 and 2— J. W. Stewart, Fred D. Cockfield Bernard-Walker No. 1 and 2 — James E. Walker, Mgr. Haneys and Walker — James E. Walker, Mgr. Boone (one set buyers) 150,000 sq. ft. floor space Mountain Burley No. 1 and 2 — R. C. Coleman Farmers Burley — R. C. Coleman West Jefferson (one set buyers) 90,000 sq. ft. floor space Tri-State Burley — Steve and Rex Taylor Planters— E. L. Dudley, Bob Dale 26 Regulations Governing Weighing of Leaf Tobacco in Warehouses ARTICLE 11. LEAF TOBACCO §6-34 Tobacco Offered for Sale. When leaf tobacco is placed on the floor of a leaf tobacco auction warehouse in a line or row according: to custom in said warehouse, preceding- the actual sale, such act on the part of any person, firm, or corporation shall be construed as offering the to- bacco for sale, and that the tobacco is offered for sale and thus becomes subject to the conditions set forth in G. S. 81-43.1. §6-35 Baskets. No basket shall be used in a tobacco auction ware- house which deviates from the established average weight by a weight in excess of one pound either over or under. The average weight shall be estab- lished by weighing 100 baskets, picked at random, and this weight divided by 100 The said average basket weight shall be posted on the scale or scale house in a plain and conspicious place. Any and every basket in said warehouse which does not conform to this requirement shall be removed from the premises or destroyed by the operators of the warehouse. Each warehouse shall be equipped with a metal test weight which shall be equal in weight to the established and posted average weight of basket, baid test weight shall be used by the weigh master in making allowance for Tobacco warehouse scales are tested by inspectors of the NCDA Division of Weights and Measures. 27 the basket when setting total tare on tare beam of scale and thereby protect himself in the issuing of weight certificate provided for in G. S 81-40 and 81-41. §6-36. Warehouse Trucks. All warehouse trucks shall be of the same weight, and any weight needed to bring about this result shall be perma- nently attached by a bolt. The said weight shall be painted, stenciled, or otherwise conspiciously marked on each truck and shall also be posted on scale or scale house. §6-37. "Even Pound" System. As long as the "even pound" system is used in the buying and selling of tobacco on the warehouse floor, the nearest "even pound" on indicator dial, or beam shall be used. §6-38. Variations in Weight. Whereas leaf tobacco which is offered for sale or sold at auction on a leaf tobacco warehouse floor is a commodity which may increase or decrease in weight due to atmospheric conditions, it therefore becomes necessary to reckon with such variation and a tol- erance not exceeding two per cent or six pounds (whichever is less) shall be considered a reasonable variation on any basket of tobacco which is be- ing offered for sale or sold or delivered; however, such variation shall be determined by the facts in each case and applicable to each individual basket of tobacco; provided that in no case shall any allowance be made for variation in weight due to atmospheric conditions on baskets of tobacco erroneously weighed or illegally packed; and provided further that any claim for an allowance in excess of two per cent or six pounds (which- ever is less) shall be made to the weighmaster in accordance with Chapter 81, Sec. 44 of the General Statutes, and such claim shall be declared by the claimant to the seller as soon as practicable after any such discrepancy in weight becomes apparent. §6-39. Violations. Any weigh master or other person, firm, or corpo- ration who takes, or attempts to take, advantage of these variations or tolerances, in the issuing of a weight certificate, or in the setting of tare beam on scale when making allowance for weight of truck and average weight of baskets, shall be guilty of misrepresenting the quality in fact and subject to penalty as set forth in Sections 81-18 and 81-40 of the Gen- eral Statutes. §6-40. Custodian of Tobacco. It shall not be construed that these varia- tions and tolerances do in any way relieve the custodian of the tobacco of his responsibility or liability as referred to in G. S. 81-43 and 81-43.1. (Approved by Board of Agriculture September 11, 1939; amended July 25, 1946; and amended October 17, 1949). (Authority: G. S. 81-2; G. S. 81-2.1). 28 Regulations Governing Tobacco Curer Installations The following sections of the Rules, Regulations, Definitions and Stand- ards of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture, were promulgated by the State Board of Agriculture, under authority of G. S. 81-14.7, which provides that "all heating units and/or curing assemblies offered for sale or sold in this state, intended for use in curing the so-called flue-cured tobacco . . . shall bear a label or seal of approval authorized by the board of agriculture . . . ." ARTICLE 15. HEATING UNIT FOR CURING TOBACCO §6-49. Type Approval. Any distributor desiring to sell such a heating unit, or curer, shall first obtain approval of such sale, or distribution, from the State Superintendent of Weights and Measures by setting up and demonstrating said heating unit, or curer, at some place agreed upon by the State Superintendent of Weights and Measures and the manufacturer, or distributor, preferably at the Tobacco Experiment Station at Oxford, North Carolina. The manufacturer, or distributor, shall also furnish the State Superintendent of Weights and Measures specifications covering said heating unit, or curer, together with instructions on how same shall be installed and used in order to reduce to a minimum the fire hazard asso- ciated with such use. §6-50. Label of Approval. Such heating units, or curers, as approved in accordance with Section 6-49, shall have permanently attached thereto a label mearing the following statement, or its equivalent: "North Caro- lina Approved Type, Permit No " §6-51. Minimum Safety Requirements. Every blaze, or flame, of fire emanating from any outlet of inflammable fuel, regardless of size.shape, or heat intensity, shall be considered as being hazardous; and every heat- ing device, or unit, generally known as a curer, which uses fire as a means of generating heat, shall be subject to the following specifications, which specifications shall be known as minimum safety requirements pursuant to the reduction of fire hazard in the so-called flue-cured tobacco barns; and all curers offered for sale, or sold, after September 1, 1947, shall con- form to said requirements, to wit: (a) Whenever the term "curer" is used in these specifications, it shall be construed as meaning one or more heating units, or stoves, or chambers, or machines, or devices, used, or intended to be used, as a means of generating heat sufficient for curing so-called flue-cured tobacco, in a tobacco barn not larger than twenty-two feet square, or its equivalent in square feet. (b) Each curer and/or assembly installed in the so-called flue cured tobacco barn, after September 1, 1947, shall have a positive cut-off at 200° F. The instrument for responding to said temperature shall be placed directly over heating unit or at the place recommended by the manufacturer. 29 (c) No curer, or flue, or attachment thereto shall be installed in a to- bacco barn nearer to inflammable material than three inches for each 100°F. surface temperature in excess of 500°F. with a mini- mum distance of three inches. (d) The flame, or blaze, or fire resulting from the combustion of the fuel shall be limited to, or confined in, the combustion chamber of the curer. The combustion chamber is that area, or confined space, where the fuel is admitted, ignited, and burned; and the chamber shall be built of such material and dimension as to withstand the results of such combustion without cracking:, buckling, melting, or burning- through. (e) All curers, or parts conected thereto, exposed to falling tobacco, which at any time during the curing process, reaches a tempera- ture of 500 "F. or more, must be protected by a guard of such strength and rigidity as to withstand ordinary abuse and not punc- ture or become distorted by a falling stick of tobacco, and said guard shall not go above 500 °F. (f) The maximum oil burning capacity of each heating unit, or curer, which uses oil as a fuel, shall be tested, rated, and labeled, in cubic centimeters per minute at 78°F. with pressure head not exceeding seven feet. (g) Each heating unit, or curer, which uses oil as a fuel, except the pressure atomizer type, which shall have some other type of safety control, shall be equipped with an automatic float control valve set and sealed to flow not more than the maximum burning capacity of heating unit, or curer, to which it is connected at 78 °F. under normal fuel head built into the float control valve and said valve shall be labeled showing its maximum flow capacity in C.C.'s per minute and the top of the fuel supply tank shall not be more than seven feet above the level line of the float control valve. (h) All heating units, or curers, using oil as a fuel, except pressure burners, shall be installed at such a level, in relation to float con- trol valve or over-flow pipe, as to make imposible an overflow of fuel from the combustion chamber into the barn. (i) Every curer, or heating unit, operated with fuel under pressure shall be equipped with automatic means which will cut off fuel supply should the fuel fail to ignite upon entering combustion cham- ber, or should ignition fail while fuel is being supplied. (j) No stoker, or parts thereof, shall be sold, offered for sale, or in- stalled, that will not, during continuous running for the period of one hour, completely burn its alleged maximum rated capacity of fuel. §6-52. Expense Involved. All expenses incurred in setting up and demonstrating said unit, or curer, including hotel and traveling expenses of the State Superintendent of Weights and Measures, or his deputy, shall be borne by the manufacturer, or distributor, of heating unit, or curer, submitted. The manufacturer, or distributor, shall also obtain from the office of the State Superintendent of Weights and Measures the label referred to in Section 6-50 at an expense of One Dollar ($1.00) each in 30 lots of ten (10) or more, and attach one to each heating unit, or curer, before offering for sale, or distributing. §6-53. Instruction to Accompany Heating Unit of Curer. Every heat- ing unit offered for sale, or sold, shall be tagged with a double postcard which shall bear the following information, or its equivalent: "This heat- ing unit, or curer, is manufactured and sold by (manufacturer's name and address)', Permit No , installed by (name of person or contractor making installation), in my barn (name of owner), located on Highway, or R 0a d , miles from town." One of the said postcards shall be mailed by the purchaser, or his agent, to the office of the State Superintendent of Weights and Measures, Raleigh, North Caro- lina, immediately upon installation of said heating unit, or curer, and the other card shall be sent to the manufacturer. The said unit, or curer, shall also be accompanied with a set of instructions on how to install and use, completely assembled, in a so-called flue cured tobacco barn, together with a picture of such installation; and the instructions and picture shall be framed with a glass or other transparent cover suitable for screwing on the tobacco barn door or some other prominent safe place about the barn. The manufacturer, or distributor, shall keep a record of to whom each heating unit, or curer, is sold and permit number. (Adopted by Board of Agriculture May 29, 1947; Amended August 7, 1947) The NCDA Weights and Measures Division is charged with administra- tion of the law and regulations governing tobacco curer installations. In the picture above an inspector is checking the temperature of an exposed pipe. 31 OUTLETS FOR U. S. TOBACCO BIL. LBS. Cigarettes Cigars Smoking, chewing, snuff Exports 1924-28 I9343t AV. AV. 1947 1948 1949 1950 <$AL!S WEIGHT FQUIV/Uff.